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Italy’s Reconsideration of China’s Belt and Road Initiative – A Complex Balancing Act


Italy’s unexpected decision to join China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has stirred significant debate and is now being reevaluated by the country’s new leadership. As a prominent member of NATO, the European Union, and the G-7 group of advanced economies, Italy’s participation in the BRI has raised concerns about Europe’s ability to assert itself against Beijing. With a new government in power, Italy faces the challenge of redefining its relationship with China and addressing the contentious issue of Taiwan. This article examines Italy’s delicate position, explores the implications of its decision, and considers the broader context of EU-China relations.

I. Italy’s Initial Alignment with the BRI

Italy’s pivotal decision to join China’s ambitious BRI in 2019 caused ripples throughout the Western world. By embracing this comprehensive infrastructure and investment plan, Italy was perceived to undermine Europe’s collective ability to counter China’s growing influence. However, when former European Central Bank governor Mario Draghi assumed power in 2021, the agreement was put on hold, and a critical assessment of Chinese investments in Italy commenced. Notably, several Chinese takeovers were vetoed during this period, reflecting a shift in Italy’s stance.

II. The Role of Taiwan in Italy’s Reconsideration

Italy’s relationship with China is significantly influenced by its stance on Taiwan. While China regards Taiwan as a renegade province, Taiwan considers itself an independent entity since its separation from the mainland in 1949. The escalating tensions between the two sides, coupled with high-level U.S. officials’ visits to Taiwan, have drawn Beijing’s ire. Italian Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni, in an endorsement of democratic values, expressed solidarity with those who believe in democracy alongside a Taiwanese representative. This position creates a dilemma, as aligning more closely with Taiwan risks jeopardizing Italy’s relations with China, while deepening economic ties with Beijing may contradict Meloni’s pre-election promises.

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III. The Uncertain Path Forward

Italy’s predicament concerning the BRI and China’s influence remains highly controversial within the Italian government. Silvia Menegazzi, a professor of international relations and Chinese studies, suggests that Italy might not reach a definitive decision and will likely continue its Belt and Road participation for the time being. The agreement allows either party to terminate the deal after five years, or it automatically extends for another five-year term. Italy’s deadline to inform China of its decision approaches by the end of 2023, leaving uncertainty and speculation about the country’s future course of action.

IV. Political Pressures and Coalition Dynamics

Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni’s alignment with the United States on the Chinese front is juxtaposed with the influence exerted by her coalition partners, Lega’s Matteo Salvini and Forza Italia’s Silvio Berlusconi. These political alliances complicate Italy’s approach to China, as Salvini and Berlusconi’s constituents show greater interest in forging closer economic ties with China through the Belt and Road initiative. The competing interests within the coalition add further complexity to Italy’s decision-making process.

V. EU-China Relations in the Balance

Italy’s impending choice coincides with the European Union’s broader efforts to redefine its relationship with China. The EU faces challenges in presenting a united front toward Beijing, with some member states favoring economic cooperation while others advocate for a more critical approach. China’s significance as the largest source of EU imports and the third-largest buyer of EU goods underscores its economic importance to Europe. This economic argument gains further traction as the EU grapples with vulnerabilities caused by the ongoing conflict in Ukraine.

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VI. Taiwan’s Impact on Italy-China Relations

The status of Taiwan is a major point of contention between Italy and China. While China sees Taiwan as a breakaway province, Taiwan sees itself as a separate entity from China, having ruled itself since splitting from the mainland in 1949 following a protracted civil war. Tensions between the two have risen over the years, with high-level U.S. politicians’ visits to Taiwan drawing Beijing’s ire.

New Italian Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni has stood alongside those who believe in democracy, according to her statement on Twitter prior to her election in September. She was standing next to a representative from Taiwan. If Italy chooses closer ties to Taiwan, this will surely jeopardize its relations with China. However, deepening investment links with Beijing might go against what Meloni promised pre-election. A delegation of Italian politicians was due to travel to Taiwan in April, but the trip was postponed to an unspecified date, according to media reports.

VII. The Future of EU-China Relations

Italy’s decision to revisit its participation in the BRI comes at a time when the wider European Union is framing a new relationship with China. The bloc is finding it increasingly hard to strike a united front toward Beijing, with some nations favoring economic links.

Italy’s reconsideration of its participation in China’s Belt and Road Initiative presents a complex balancing act for the country. As a member of NATO, the European Union, and the G-7 group of advanced economies, Italy holds a pivotal position in the geopolitical landscape. Joining the BRI in 2019 raised concerns about the country’s alignment with Beijing and its potential impact on Europe’s ability to counter Chinese influence. Now, under new leadership, Italy faces the challenge of navigating its relations with China while also considering its commitments to democratic values and alliances. The decision-making process involves carefully weighing the economic benefits of closer ties with Beijing against potential repercussions in terms of security, geopolitics, and alignment with its Western partners. In this delicate balancing act, Italy must carefully assess its options and consider the consequences for its national interests and international standing. As the deadline looms, Italy’s reconsideration of the BRI remains a topic of interest and scrutiny, making headlines in international media outlets like Google News.


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