The English statesman and military leader Oliver Cromwell, the leader of the English bourgeois revolution, died
Today is Friday, September 3, the 246th day of 2021. There are 119 days until the end of the year.
Numerous events in history have marked the present day, and some of the historical figures whose work and actions have changed the course of humanity have been born.
It happened on this day
1189 – Richard I Plantagenet – The Lionheart is crowned King of England.
1759 – Expulsion of Roman Catholic Jesuits begins in Portugal.
1783 – Britain, the United States, France, and Spain sign the Peace of Paris, ending the American War of Independence.
1791 – The French Parliament adopts a constitution establishing a constitutional monarchy.
1826 – Nicholas I Pavlovich Romanov is crowned Tsar of Russia.
1866 – The first congress of the First International begins in Geneva.
1884 – The first passenger train on the Belgrade-Nish line departs from Belgrade.
1931 – King Alexander I Karadjordjevic of Yugoslavia promulgates an enacted constitution enacting a monarchist dictatorship on January 6, 1929. According to the constitution, the government depended on the king to decide whether the law was valid. A second house was introduced in the Assembly – the Senate, whose members were mostly appointed by the king.
1939 – Two days after the German invasion of Poland, Britain, and France declare war on Nazi Germany in World War II.
1939 – The largest international car races in Yugoslavia until then were held on the circular track around Kalemegdan in Belgrade, and the winner received the “Belgrade Grand Prix”.
1943 – An Allied troop attack on fascist Italy in World War II begins with the landing of the Eighth British Army in Sicily, under the command of Field Marshal Bernard Lo Montgomery.
1971 – The USSR, the United States, Great Britain, and France sign an agreement on the status of the city of Berlin.
1976 – A US Viking 2 manned spacecraft lands on Mars and begins sending photos from the planet.
1996 – The United States launches one of the strongest military attacks on Iraq since the end of the 1991 Gulf War, firing 27 cruise missiles at targets in the south of the country, arguing that it was a punishment for helping Saddam Hussein’s army to one of the Kurdish factions in the “security zone”. declared by the UN in northern Iraq.
1997 – A Vietnamese Tupolev 134 passenger plane crashes near the airport in the Cambodian capital, Phnom Penh, killing 65 people, mostly foreigners.
2004 – Russian special forces end hostage crisis at school in Beslan, after two days of terrorist siege. More than 300 hostages were killed, including about 200 children and 31 terrorists.
Born on this day
1900 – Born Finnish statesman Urho Kekonen, President of Finland from 1956 to 1982, the most prominent Finnish politician after World War II.
Died on this day
1658 – English statesman and military leader Oliver Cromwell, leader of the English bourgeois revolution, dies. His army defeated the royal army in 1644 at Marston Moore and in 1645 at Nesby and captured King Charles I Stuart, who was sentenced to death and executed in 1649. Rejecting the title of king, in 1653 he became the protector of the kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Two years after his death the monarchy was restored.
1877 – French statesman and historian Louis Adolf Thierry, founder and first president of the Third Republic from 1871 to 1873, dies. As head of the Versailles government in 1871, he suffocates the Paris Commune in blood. Works: “History of the French Revolution”, “History of the Consulate and Empire”.
1883 – Died Russian writer Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev, one of the most important representatives of Russian realism. He was the first Russian writer whose works penetrated the West, where he was read with admiration and during his lifetime enjoyed a much greater reputation in French than in Russian literary circles. He was interested in the type of “superfluous man”, the noble-intellectual, and the type of nihilist – the bourgeois intellectual, in conflict with the conservatism of aristocratic culture. He predicted a revolutionary era in Russia. Works: novels “Fathers and Children”, “Noble Nest”, “Rudin”, “Smoke”, “Newspaper”, “On the Eve of New Days”, short stories “Spring Waters”, “Asja”, “Hunter’s Records”, drama “Moon” days in the countryside “.
1948 – Died Czech statesman Eduard Beneš, President of Czechoslovakia from 1935 to 1938 and from 1946 to 1948. He was the leader of the People’s Party and the closest associate of the first President of Czechoslovakia, Tomas Garig Masaryk. During the First World War, he worked on the creation of a free Czechoslovakia and the Lesser Entente. From the founding of Czechoslovakia in 1918 to 1936, he was chief of diplomacy, and after the Munich Agreement of 1938, by which the West practically handed Czechoslovakia at the mercy of Nazi Germany, he resigned and went into exile in London, where he led a refugee camp during World War II. government. After the war, he became head of state again but resigned in 1948 when the communists seized all power and he soon died.
1962 – American writer Edward Estlin Cummings dies, a poet of strong lyrical talent whose poetry was dominated by themes of love and death. Works: collections of verses “41 songs”, “Is 5”, “Viva”, “Tom”, “V20”, “1×1”, “Seventy-one songs”.
1969 – Vietnamese statesman Ho Chi Minh, president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam since the proclamation in 1945 and leader of the fight against the Japanese army, French colonial troops, and the American invasion army, dies. From 1917 he worked in France, wherein 1920 he became a member of the Communist Party of France, and in 1930 he founded the Communist Party of Vietnam. During World War II, when Japan occupied Vietnam, it created a strong liberation movement, the core of the future army, which inflicted decisive defeats on the French and then the Americans, thanks to which North and South Vietnam were united in 1976.
1991 – American film director of Italian descent Frank Capra, author of great comedies with a satirical note, dies. He wrote the memoir “Name above the title”. Movies: “Donovan Affair”, “Young Generation”, “Forbidden”, “American Madness”, “General Jen’s Bitter Tea”, “It Happened One Night”, “Mr. Dids Goes to Town”, “Lost Horizons”, “Meet John Doe “,” Arsenic and old lace “,” You can’t take it with you “(” Oscar “award),” This is a wonderful life “,” Union State “,” A pocket full of miracles “.